艺术世界 2017年3月316 期
写生
 
艺术世界|策划
栾志超 | 责编
 
 “写生”是这期长读讨论的起点。在艺术史中,有着关于写生不间断的历史叙述,写生课程是美院教学的重要构成,“实物或风景绘画”这样狭义概念的写生持续至今,同时仍有许多艺术家在进行写生或者广义上的写生创作。
 
本期长读,通过艺术家个体的经历和思考,深入到关于写生相关的问题讨论中去。这些问题包括:其时历史文化背景下的写生状态;写生教育与艺术创作之间的关系;对写生对象的选择和观看;通过写生和外界建立怎样的关系和对话;写生中进行了怎样的图像转化;走出工作室、去写生和旅行给思考和创作带来怎样的帮助和启示;旅行方式及技术(如摄影)的变迁对写生创作带来的改变;写生与摄影术、写生与速写、习作与创作之间的博弈;在写生中对肖像与风景这两大创作主题的思考……

 

18 “还没画够”——对话王音
杨圆圆|采访
 
王音,《父亲 1》,2010,布面油彩,60cm×48cm,王音工作室|图片提供
 
ArtWorld:在《父亲 1》中,你描绘了父亲在写生时的背影。可否请你谈谈对父辈写生练习的了解?
王音:我父亲他画了一辈子写生,现在他年纪大了,外出画画不像以前那么多了,就在家画静物,也还是写生。我这一代人,开始画画,也是从写生入手。

ArtWorld:那一时期,通常会选择的写生对象是怎样的?能否谈谈你自己早期学画时写生的经验?
王音:我从七、八岁开始画画,那时候经常去青岛少年宫学画,写生基本也都是画石膏像、静物、风景这些东西。

ArtWorld:青岛的鲁迅公园是否是你曾经常去写生的地点?
王音:青岛以前市区不大,小时候几个画友常常会去鲁迅公园或周围海边画写生,那时候,画画更多是课余时间的活动,凭兴趣。
 
ArtWorld:可否分享几段与早期写生或学画有关的难忘回忆?
王音:想不起来太多具体的事情。由于父母都做美术工作,当时家里有一些画册,有来自东德的,也有苏联时期写实主义的油画和素描画册,我觉得自己从小喜欢画画是天经地义的事,“文革”结束之后很自然地报考了艺术学院……我这个人生活一直都挺平淡的,好像也没什么特别复杂的经历。

ArtWorld:你 1983 年来到北京后,在中戏读的是舞台美术专业,可否谈谈你对戏剧的兴趣?又是在怎样的契机你下决定从舞台美术方向转向架上油画?

王音:对戏剧真正发生兴趣,是毕业以后的事情了,上学时候,我兴趣还是在画画上面。上世纪80 年代初,中戏还是“苏联式”的教学体系,注重绘画训练。所以,那时候没有所谓转向问题。
 

王音,《习作》,2015,纸本水彩,19cm×24cm,王音工作室|图片提供

ArtWorld:在 1980 年代毕业后,哪些艺术家对你的启发较大?可否谈谈你当时的状态?你从哪一阶段开始尝试自主的艺术表达?
王音:太多了,刚入学的时候,我非常喜欢苏俄时期的画家,像杰涅卡、格洛文,后来也喜欢德国表现主义、美国的抽象表现主义,像德库宁,以及后来的新表现主义,巴塞利兹这些。在毕业后有一个阶段比较困惑,我开始考虑自己与许多现代艺术之间的关系,总觉得它们和自己不是那么合拍。后来我慢慢意识到,也许一些我从小就看的画册对我有更多吸引力,比如吴作人、颜文梁等人的作品。从这个角度出发,我开始思考自己与油画的关系,或者说,试图去梳理油画与自己建立联系的路径。在 1990 年代初期画的一系列作品中,我开始在作品中有意识地带入对中国早期油画经验的模仿,比如《小说月报》。我想那应该是我在创作中进行自我表达的起点。
 
ArtWorld:苏派的绘画技法对你的影响很大?
王音:所谓学画,其实就是按照一种模式画画。在学画许多年以后,我开始琢磨这个模式和自己的关系,这种模式如何塑造了我今天对绘画的理解。而在 2000 年左右,我开始更加主动地把自己早期学画的经验和技术暴露在作品中,让这些细节更加清晰。

ArtWorld:在你的作品中可以看到对不同类型的图像素材的挪用(对不同画家的引用、对典型图像的引用、对自己过往作品中反复出现的元素进行引用等等),而后在此基础上,进行不同程度的篡改与虚构。无论是街景中路边的商场与办公楼,还是画中那些具有典型姿态的人物,最终都被缩减到最基本形态,建筑变得难以辨识,人的面孔变得模糊。可否请你谈谈自己作品中对图像的引用方式?
王音:引用图像的来路渠道很多,类似于写作者与写作素材的关系,有些图像素材对我有启发,可以帮我展开一些思索,有些也可以是完成一张画的直接依据。

在不同阶段我对引用图像的态度是不同的。比如在 1990 年代初期,引用的图像相对比较少,更多都是以绘画的造型作为出发点。有时可能会引用绘画史上的素材,比如王式廓的《改造二流子》,并对这些题材进行变形。2000 年以后,我开始更广泛地引用艺术史上自己感兴趣的形象,或将一些自己拍摄的图片作为素材。

ArtWorld:写生作为对眼前所见的速记,是一种画家独有的“留下记忆凭证的方式”,若与“快照”相对应,写生仿佛是一种留下“慢照”的方式。在你开始画画的年代,大家都还是用胶片拍照,数码时代尚未到来,快照还不像今天这么“快”。当时的摄影与写生之间或许有更多共同之处。你对摄影有过兴趣吗?照片与你创作的关系是怎样的?
王音:我对摄影不是很懂,更多是把摄影作为一个记录的工具。大部分时候,我会先在头脑中想到一个形象,然后再去现实中找它,去观察,去旅行。
 
王音,《西北(午后)》,2015 ,布面油彩,60cm×80cm,王音工作室|图片提供

ArtWorld:你作品涉及到的许多区域,比如中国的边缘地区,比如东北,比如西北,比如台湾和香港。你是否每次都会亲自前往这些区域展开真实的旅行,并在实地取材?
王音:当然也有“卧游”的成分啊,去了当地肯定还是不一样的。总的来讲,旅行常常会给我一些意外的收获,比如《忠孝东路》,比如《西北》。再比如我之前去俄罗斯,其实就是很单纯地想去看看苏联时期的美术作品。但是在一段时间之后,那次旅行在我身上留下的痕迹会渐渐体现,比如面对《俄式列车》这样的作品,我会用那种苏式的颜色来处理——一种特殊的棕灰色。旅行时的一些灵感与线索,很多时候是需要时间慢慢清晰出来的,也有时在一段时间内清晰不了,这个线索就中断了。
 
ArtWorld:是哪年去的俄罗斯?
王音:是四、五年前的事了。

ArtWorld:大部分人去旅行时,如果对眼前的事物产生了兴致,从兜里掏出的都会是手机,而不是素描本子。你通常更倾向于哪种方式?
王音:不太固定。我画写生其实就是希望自己能习惯性地动动手,没有特别清晰的目的。我平时画写生的方式也都是很随意的,闲着的时候,房前屋后的地方画画,有时候画得多点,有的时候少一点。

ArtWorld:写生对你而言重要性是什么?你会将写生的画作视为作品吗?还是它仅仅是作为练习的结果或者素材?
王音:我画写生,更偏重于练习,练练手和眼的反应。与此同时,它也可以被视为作品。这些年来,我越来越觉得习作与题材性的创作之间并非是一个简单的从属关系。比如一个人临毛笔字帖,其中也是包含着创作经验的。
 
王音,《俄式列车 1》,2013,布面油彩,160cm×130 cm,王音工作室|图片提供


ArtWorld:你作品中的许多元素经常会反复出现,比如长腿的女人、芒果、画家,父亲写生的背影等等。你对“反复”的看法是什么?
王音:绘画不烦“反复”或是“重复”,说到“父亲写生”这类作品,讨论的问题还是与时间相关。每一次的重复都是不同的,绝不是单纯的复制。我觉得画家重复画一个元素可能并不需要什么理由,可能就是单纯地觉得“还没画够”。与此同时,这些东西不是我独有的特点,它在绘画史上并不特殊,人们总是在重复画一些相似的形象,比如文艺复兴时期的人体。前段时间我读了一篇文章,文中写到夏尔丹和马奈都画过的吹泡泡的人。

ArtWorld:相较于在户外写生(面对眼前处于改变中的事物),在工作室的创作是相对静止的,两种不同的创作方式对你而言是否有本质的差异?
王音:我没觉得两种状态有很大差别。写生对我而言,更多是一个能经常和材料打交道的途径,“画需熟外熟”,我每天都希望可以动动手,毕竟画画是一个经验性的事情。
 

 

ArtWorld:但是在写生的时候,眼前的一切都转瞬即逝,且处于变化之中的。
王音:其实在写生时,画家直接观看时的主动性是很强的,需要主观地处理造型与改变。写生绝不是一个被动的事。

ArtWorld:在你眼中,家乡青岛和北京的颜色差别是怎样的?
王音:它们很不一样。青岛是一个整体色调比较明亮轻快的城市。我刚来北京的时候,觉得这个城市到处都是灰色的。

ArtWorld:你在北京生活 30 年了,城市的颜色在这些年变化大吗?

王音:30 年前其实比现在灰,这和空气无关。现在这座城市的颜色反而越来越多了。

 

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