艺术世界 2017年3月316 期
写生
 
艺术世界|策划
栾志超 | 责编
 
 “写生”是这期长读讨论的起点。在艺术史中,有着关于写生不间断的历史叙述,写生课程是美院教学的重要构成,“实物或风景绘画”这样狭义概念的写生持续至今,同时仍有许多艺术家在进行写生或者广义上的写生创作。
 
本期长读,通过艺术家个体的经历和思考,深入到关于写生相关的问题讨论中去。这些问题包括:其时历史文化背景下的写生状态;写生教育与艺术创作之间的关系;对写生对象的选择和观看;通过写生和外界建立怎样的关系和对话;写生中进行了怎样的图像转化;走出工作室、去写生和旅行给思考和创作带来怎样的帮助和启示;旅行方式及技术(如摄影)的变迁对写生创作带来的改变;写生与摄影术、写生与速写、习作与创作之间的博弈;在写生中对肖像与风景这两大创作主题的思考……

 

94 写生只能解决写生的问题
陈侗|文

美术学院的专业课程一般由临摹、写生和创作三部分组成,其中写生占的比重最大,除了课堂上画模特儿,还有户外写生。课堂写生跟创作没有直接关系,只是作为造型和技巧的练习,说白了就是锻炼写实绘画的能力;而户外写生,虽然在当今的教学管理中被统归为“社会实践”,但过去它的实质总是跟创作有关——体验生活,收集素材,回到学校就搞创作。今天,学生对社会实践课的理解就是放风或旅游;而在教师眼里,只要走出校门,离开城市,就都是为创作做准备。所以他们总是会鼓励学生把一些写生画稿升级为创作——就算是一个农民的头像,也希望学生找机会摆进画面里。我们今天所能见到的建国后的画家档案,大部分就是一些素材:农民的头像、动态速写或乡村风景写生,这些东西足够归纳成一部个人的艺术史。当然,现在的美术学院,创作已不再像过去那样以农村为主要对象,学生收集素材的工具也不再是画笔。教学观念也随着整体的艺术观念转变而转变。下乡不用搞“三同”,户外写生就是户外写生,它的作用回到了写生的绘画性上。通过搞一些技法尝试去消除习作与创作之间的界限,这是今天艺术思潮影响下的教学特点。至于画像一个对象,已经变得不那么重要了。你甚至看不出一幅写生是真写生还是离开对象编出来的。在这样的风气下,有时翻阅起过去出版的画册,就不由得感叹以前的画家写生时为何能够做到那么纯粹。

当听到老师赞扬某个学生“基本功扎实”时,这实际上就是说他写生画得好,而且这毫无疑问是指写实意义上的写生画得好。而在另一些情况下,如果老师说某个学生“很聪明”,那意思可能是指他虽然不好好写生,但是在创作上肯动脑筋,所以最后反而比那些基本功扎实的学生要有出息。以前就有过课堂写生成绩好的“五分生”不会搞创作最终被社会淘汰的说法。他们的画面不光缺乏才气,而且每画一个动作都要摆模特儿,这是课堂写生长期作业造成的负面效果。针对这一点,美术学院的课堂写生又分为速写与慢写,而那些慢写(长期作业)做不好的学生,速写却画得很生动。现在的情况大概也还是这样,当代中国那些知名的艺术家,若看回他们当年的素描长期作业,能够拿满分的还真不多。所以,有一次,张培力说,我们什么都别比了,就比画素描吧!他大概对自己的基本功很有信心,也肯定知道很多当代艺术家基本功是不怎么行的。既然聪明的学生最终要打败那些只是会画写生长期作业的基本功扎实的学生,那么,是不是可以说,创作的学术价值就大于写生?不然。我们都知道,“创作不可教”一直是美术学院通行的一种说法,这不光是是指创作重在鼓励学生的个性发挥,还向我们暗示,固有的创作观念往往经不住时间的考验,甚至还受到地域的限制,因此就根本不存在教学上所能奉行的创作通则,哪怕这种通则是以多样性为前提。例如,中国美术史可以给罗中立的《父亲》一个很高的位置,但如果在课堂上拿它作为创作上的一种范例,这会让教师感到难为情,也会引来学生在下面的偷笑。创作教学一旦想找到什么一成不变的规律,它必然会陷入不合时宜的窘况。大多数情况下,一个学生的创作搞得好不好,基本上与教师的指导没有关系。

写生似乎从来都不担心出现过不过时的问题。三十年前我们迷恋的写生杰作,例如王子武先生的水墨人物写生,今天照样可以拿出来给学生作示范,而且还会讲解得更细致。摄影术的诞生与发展,看起来好像否定了写生的意义,但结果恰恰相反,在艺术观念的不断更替中,似乎也只有写生才能解释绘画的原始魅力,因为写生的要义不是真实而是生动。在写生的技巧方面,你可以用一种方法替代另一种方法,但你不会说不为自己所用的方法都是没有意义的。从人文主义的角度说,历史上所有时期的写生作品,其价值都是相当的。无论是马奈的写生还是毕加索、莫迪里阿尼的写生,虽然差别是显著的,但从来没有人怀疑过写生作为他们的艺术动作的价值。俄国的谢洛夫是一位杰出的写生画家,才情四溢,他的表妹在回忆他为她画肖像的经过时写道:“他总是在画,而我就是坐着。一小时又一小时,一天又一天,一星期又一星期地过去了。我当模特已经进入第三个月了……不错,我一连坐了三个月……如果由于天气不好或某些外部影响而空过的那些早晨或午后的时间不加以计算的话,几乎是没有休息过的,当天气不好的时候,他就去画池塘……”这样的写生,发生在一百多年前,不仅不会让我们感到过时,反而只会激起我们效法大师的意愿与冲动。有时,我们想这么做而又行动不起来,就会埋怨我们这个时代竟然没有提供能让人静下心来作写生的条件。
 
当我们真的要像谢洛夫那样为一幅画去做一场三个月的写生时,首先要做的一件事就是关掉手机,割断跟外界的一切往来,也不能去想昨天今天明天发生在你周围的事。在画廊、美术馆和博览会的此起彼伏中去做一场漫长的写生,这等于是把自己囚禁起来,注定会在精神方面产生神奇的效果。写生作为一个动作,它与世界的节奏是那么的不协调,但又的确处于世界当中,这种冲突已经被像刘小东这样的艺术家积极地揭示出来。不过,我们不要以为每一次写生都会带来这样的感觉,因为对感受的层次起决定性作用的是被囚禁的理由和囚禁的时间长度。刘小东没有把写
生作为创作的素材,写生于他就是创作,所以他是延续了美术史上谢洛夫们的做法。有感于绘画的这一传统,我所说的写生便断然不宜包括美术学院的课堂写生,而只能是谢洛夫式的、马奈式的、莫迪里阿尼式的、毕加索式的。或者也还包括刘小东式的,虽然我们不知道刘小东有没有在同一个模特儿身上画上几个月甚至几年的时间。

只有不把写生,尤其是户外写生作为创作的基础,写生这一绘画动作才能在观念上实现自我完善。一个画家,若是出于提高技术的理由而去进行写生,那就等于还是把写生当成了绘画创作的基础,其结果是屏蔽或忽略了其他观念共同作用下所能形成的基础。由于职业的影响,美术学院的教师特别容易视写生为解决造型难题的法门,而将提升造型的目的归为创作所需,这就形成了与艺术史的双重脱离:一是脱离了谢洛夫式的“写生即创作”的传统;二是脱离了中国画学所提倡的“目识心记”的传统。既然关于写生的争议只是出现在其目的上,那么,让目的回到写生,本身就能化解争议。在 21 世纪还作 19 世纪谢洛夫式的写生,三个月对着一个模特儿画一张画就不会成为过时之举。至于写生以外的创作,仅“目识心记”一条法则就足够解决素材之需。“目识心记”的要义并不是单纯指记住真实的对象,而是为想象开辟空间。有一次,罗伯-格里耶为了写海鸥,便去海岛观察海鸥,结果他发现真实的海鸥并不是他所要的,他要的是想象中的海鸥。文学创作尚且如此,绘画不是更需要抛弃真实吗?所以,在谢洛夫为他的表妹进行的为期三个月的一个固定动作的写生中,我们同样可以说,他要达到的境界肯定不止是我们所谓的形神兼备:他是在捕捉他内心的画面,即批评家所说的“引人入胜的清新格调”。

当写生不再成为创作的基础时,它所面对和要解决的问题同时也就不再是如何塑造或再现真实。写生的问题归根结底就是观念的取舍。让模特儿坐着一动不动是一种观念,在山川之间走来走去也是一种观念。无论哪种观念,都强烈地对抗再现真实而追求所能获得的真实性。在写生所获得的真实性当中,只有一个成分是永恒存在的,那就是“我”。这个“我”既是艺术家的自我表现,也包括“我”与世界的关系。具有了写生的观念之后,写生才真正成为一件我们一直可以去做的事情。
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