艺术世界 2017年3月316 期
写生
 
艺术世界|策划
栾志超 | 责编
 
 “写生”是这期长读讨论的起点。在艺术史中,有着关于写生不间断的历史叙述,写生课程是美院教学的重要构成,“实物或风景绘画”这样狭义概念的写生持续至今,同时仍有许多艺术家在进行写生或者广义上的写生创作。
 
本期长读,通过艺术家个体的经历和思考,深入到关于写生相关的问题讨论中去。这些问题包括:其时历史文化背景下的写生状态;写生教育与艺术创作之间的关系;对写生对象的选择和观看;通过写生和外界建立怎样的关系和对话;写生中进行了怎样的图像转化;走出工作室、去写生和旅行给思考和创作带来怎样的帮助和启示;旅行方式及技术(如摄影)的变迁对写生创作带来的改变;写生与摄影术、写生与速写、习作与创作之间的博弈;在写生中对肖像与风景这两大创作主题的思考……

 

[ 巴黎|塞努奇市立亚洲博物馆 ] 丁雄泉,采花大盗
丁雄泉,采花大盗
法国巴黎|塞努奇市立亚洲博物馆
2016 年 10 月 7 日 - 2017 年 2 月 8 日

展览现场图
 
“采花大盗”丁雄泉和他的缪斯
 
(姚瑶|文)巴黎正值 60 年不遇的严寒,蒙梭公园一小滩一小滩的泥淖都结冰了。穿过公园,塞努奇市立亚洲艺术博物馆就坐落在委拉斯贵兹路上。美籍华裔画家丁雄泉的展览以“采花大盗”为题公然面世,并持续到 2017 年 1 月底。

“他结合了中国传统水墨的笔法与西方绘画的题材,尤其喜欢描绘娇媚的女体。”博物馆展厅的检票员会对踟蹰的访客如此介绍底楼的这个特展。的确,在蓬皮杜推出玛格利特大展、塞·托姆布雷(CY TWOMBLY)回顾展的火热当头,“采花大盗”是极容易被忽视的展览,显得冷僻了一些。

展览前言竟然用法文和中文写就——亲切;但贴字的法国工人可能实在对这种语言没有把握,文末一个“为”字,少了当中的一“点”。生平介绍中,特地强调画家 1928 年出生在“上海附近的”无锡,其实是为了铺垫丁雄泉的正式西文名字 Walasse 的由来,这是他儿时上海话小名“坏来西”的变形。坏小子游历欧美,先后在世界艺术之都巴黎、纽约和阿姆斯特丹创作、生活。

另辟一块紫色的展墙写有丁雄泉自撰的大事记,贯穿三个主要章节,亦是三个主要时期。每一年,一句话,记录各种“第一次”。通篇读下来,对女人(可以说是不同的女体——丁主要以肤色、人种加以区分)和情欲的体验占据了重要的篇幅。

11 岁,第一次看见男人和女人做爱;15 岁,寄出第一封情书;16 岁第一次坠入爱河;17 岁黑暗中的初夜。漂泊的艺术家没有过早结婚生子的圆满,18 岁第一次离开中国,22 岁搭乘巨轮去巴黎。其间,20 岁,第一次与妓女做爱;坦荡荡。

伴随成长时期的是第一个展厅中的墨汁抽象作品。挥笔、提顿、杵笔都充满旺盛的精力,唯有一幅苍白的油画作品,杏仁白的颜料抚抹中辨出三只龙头,中西方文化就此开始交汇。前来观展亚洲艺术的法国老年夫妇,仿佛在这个厅中适得其所地找到了东方艺术的魂魄。

始料未及的是在下一个厅,画风急转。策展人专辟一厅展示丁与皮埃尔·阿列钦斯基(Pierre Alechinsky)、阿斯格·尤恩(Asger Jorn)等欧洲抽象表现主义画家的集体创作。三人共同完成的油画作品色彩艳丽、笔触混杂。一幅画的上半部分是蓝紫色的曲线和块面,下部分则是墨汁勾勒的一群蝈蝈。集体创作的顶峰可能是最具代表性的出版物《一分生活》(One Cent Life),丁雄泉在这本汇聚各种绘画表现形式的图录中,为波普图像、抽象油画和广告招贴画作诗,一一对应,不失偏颇,共计 61 首。艺术家多方面的才华与艺术圈广泛的社交由此彰显。
 
展览现场图
 
在一个三面围墙较为私密的小展厅中,丁雄泉的女体实践开始出现。这一阶段以来到巴黎后的 23  岁“第一次与白人女人做爱”作为开篇。30 岁,首度赴美;31 岁第一次与黑人女人做爱。33 岁,第一次结婚,似乎是开始一段稳定的关系。与之对应的画作,首先是一组接近正方形的水墨绘画,女性的裸体,伸出的舌头,阴茎形状的黑色墨块,充满情欲。墙对面与之呼应的是,张扬跋扈的书法作品,如“吃得舒服”“特别高兴”;又如“红髪女人金髪女人白髪女人”“青髪的裸体女人”“睡得我从床上跌下来”“食色性也”(原文为繁体)……仿佛可以连成一句诗。

旁一幅放大的照片揭示了丁纽约工作室(1967 年)的样貌,在他命名为“图书馆”的一隅,从天花板到桌前,密密麻麻贴满了裸女的画像,可能是成人杂志的撕页,也可能是专供出售的情色小海报。像极了中国三线城市“发廊”的角落,或者是荷尔蒙旺盛的青少年贴满房间的挂历画片,只不过,这里的女性都是丰乳肥臀、搔首弄姿的西方女性形象。

两幅基于黑白照片改造、创作的小品尤其让我惊喜。装框后的作品右上方,是丁雄泉动过“手术”或拼贴完成后的新照片,裸女私处长出了葱葱郁郁的青草和粉色花朵,蓬勃向上;或两瓣臀部和大腿成为白鲨鱼的上下颚,脚掌是开叉的鱼尾。作品左边主要是丁手写的英文诗歌,十分诙谐。全场看下来,我认为这两幅是最为体现跨界创作并集中展示艺术家多样才华的作品。
 
大画幅的彩色撑开的“伞”开启了色彩浓烈的女性绘画时期,几幅半躺着裸女的姿态与《奥林匹亚》中的女主角类似,画风华丽,但又不及克里米特精致,也许是潇洒,也许是潦草;波洛克的笔法也显然对丁有所启发。

蝈蝈埋下的伏笔在《惊蛰》一章中露出面目。干燥的毛笔绘出斑驳的白马、蟋蟀,策展人大概由此挖掘和再审视艺术家的中国文化底蕴。果然,唐朝女人的形象出现了,一幅水墨线条简单勾勒的唐代女性形象,盘发、圆脸,但却是裸体,与水彩绘制的斑斓女性形象并置出现。中西绘画艺术在艺术家的人体表现作品中完全融汇。

57 岁,哭丧妻。60 岁,第一次与处女做爱;61 岁,第一次爱上红发女子。63 岁,第一次失恋。这一时期的作品,有欢欣,童真的色彩,也似乎有力不从心。以狭长通道作结的展览空间,是一条好几米的长卷,一条疲软的灰色的龙,平躺在玻璃框里,没有腾跃,也没有卷曲。回到巴黎寓所,查看资料,才发现“采花大盗”已经于 2010 年去世。

 

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